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"And" strings - standardise

GRCTools manual | Index

Purpose: To standardize the different forms of the word AND (and symbol equivalents) in the local language.

Example: C. and A., C. + A. etc. become C. & A.

image Care must be taken when using this process for languages where the word “and” consists of a single character, such as Italian (“e”) and Spanish (“y”). Whereas in most countries the lookup tables have been set to standardize the word “and” into the ampersand symbol (“&”), this is not the case for these countries as it is not possible to distinguish between the different uses of this single letter (as the word “and”, as an abbreviation, etc.). For these countries therefore, the ampersand is standardised into the letter rather than the other way around.

Information required: For each field chosen, GRC ToolsTM will ask whether this field is in upper case or mixed (upper and lower) case so that it can replace each occurrence of the word AND with its equivalent in the correct case.


For Switzerland there is a clash between Italian- and French/German-speaking areas. For Switzerland, therefore it is necessary to have written the language areas to the database file using the procedure Language Regions - assign (or have the language areas already coded). You are required to specify which field contains the language region and which code is used for Italian in Switzerland.