_____ _____ Russia

Global Sourcebook for International Data Management

                                         by Graham Rhind



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The annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014 has not been recognised by most of the international community.

For supplementary information, see links to post office home pages here External, to postal code pages here External and to other personal name and addressing issues pages here External.

Table of Contents

Russia - Country information


Local short name form

Official name



144 699 673 (2021) [1]



International telephone access code


ISO 3166 country codes

Car nationality plate code


Internet country code


GRC Country Code


Russia - Number format

   1 234,45

(where , indicates the decimal separator and a space the thousands separator)

Russia - Date formats


   Note: This section last updated 2nd June 2021

Russia - Languages


96 languages are spoken in Russia. Nationalist feelings run high and language use is important - care must be taken in choosing the language in which to communicate with individuals within Russia.

The national language is Russian External (about 140 000 000 speakers). Other widespread languages are: Bashkir External (in Bashkir ASSR, 948 720 speakers); Chechen External (in Chechenia, 944 600 speakers); Chuvash External (in Chuvashia, 1 774 000 speakers) and Tatar External (in Tatarstan, 5 715 000 speakers).

Russia - Personal names


Russian names are formed by a given name followed by the patronymic, which shows filiation to the father, followed by the surname:

   Ivan Ivanovitch Tolstoy

The patronymic is formed by adding –ovitch, -evich or -ich (“son of”) or -ovna, -ivna, -evna, -ichna or -inichna (“daughter of”) to the given name of the father. The patronymic is usually not used in correspondence.

Surnames have mascualine and feminine variants. Common male endings are:

   -ov, -ev, -in, -iy, -oy, -uy, -yn, -ski, -sky, -skiy

Common female endings are:

   -ova, -ovna, -eva, -evna, -ina, -aya, -oya, -eye, -iaya, -yna, -skaya

Some women take their husband’s name (feminised) upon marriage, others hyphenate their husband’s surname to their own.

   Tables of names can be acquired: given names External, surnames/family names External, family name prefixes External, forms of address External, job titles External

Russia - Company legal forms


Russian company types include:

   ANO (Автономная некоммерческая организация, АНО) - Autonomous non-profit organization
   GP or GUP (Государственное унитарное предприятие, ГП or ГУП) - State enterprise or Unitary state enterprise
   IP (Individualny predprinimatel/Индивидуальный предприниматель, ИП) - sole proprietorship
   kooperativ/кооператив - co-operative
   Nekommercheskaya organizatsiya/некоммерческая организация - non-profit organization
   OAO (Otkrytoye aktsionernoye obshchestvo/Открытое акционерное общество, OAO) - Public joint-stock company
   OOO (Obshchestvo s ogranichennoy otvetstvennostyu/Общество с ограниченной ответственностью, OOO) - Company with a limited liability
   ZAO (Zakrytoe aktionernoye obshchestvo/Закрытое акционерное общество, ЗАО) - Closed joint-stock company
   Comprehensive tables of these strings can be acquired – see http://www.grcdi.nl/addresses.htm External

Russia - Address format


   Note: This section last updated 23rd August 2016

Russia changed its format to a “western” form in 2005, so that it is now written:

   Family name
   Given name(s)
   Thoroughfare name[ ]building number{[ ]sub-building information}
   PLACE NAME{[ ]District[ ]Region}
   Postal code

for example:


Addresses in the old form, with the postal code at the top and the recipient’s name at the bottom, will still be found

The house number may be found in front of the thoroughfare name, especially where an address has been transliterated.

A slash (/) in building number in an address often indicates a corner location, where the first number indicates then building number on the named street, and the second indicates the location on a second street. Thus:

   Nevsky prospect 4/24

is building number 4 on Nevsky prospect, on a corner.

A hyphen (-) in a building number is often used to split the building number and the apartment number. Thus:

   Nevsky prospect 123-12

is apartment 12, building 123 on the Nevsky prospect.

Floor levels are often given using Roman numerals. The ground floor is floor I, first floor II and so on.

   A table containing information about the relevant position of elements within address blocks can be acquired External

(Sub)-building and thoroughfare types


   Note: This section last updated 22nd August 2016

This table gives the most common Russian thoroughfare types.

English translation Transliteration Russian
Apartment, flat kvartir (kv.) квартира (кварт., кв., квр)
Avenue prospect (pr., prosp.) Проспект (пр., просп., пр-т)
Block dom(d.), blok  
Boulevard bulvar (bul.) бульвар (бул.)
Bridge most (m.) Мост (М.)
Building korpus (korp., kor.) корпус (корп., кор.)
Building, structure stroenie (str.) строение, (стр.)
Cul-de-sac tupik (tup.) тупик (туп.)
Drive proezd (pr.) Проезд (р., р-он)
Embankment Naberezhnaya, Nabereszhnaya (nab.) Набережная (наб.)
Floor, storey etazh (et.) этаж (эт.)
Highway shosse (sh.) Шоссе (ш.)
Island Ostrov (O.) Остров (O.)
Lane, Alley pereulok (per., p.) Переулок (пер., п., п-к.)
Line linya (lin.) Линия (лин.)
Office ofis (of.) офис (оф.)
Office, room kabinet (kab.) кабинет (каб., к-т., к.)
Quarter, area, block kvartal (kvart., kv.) квартал (кв., кв-л)
Square ploshchad (pl.) Площадь (пл.)
Street ulitsa, ulica (ul.) Улица (ул.)
Yard, courtyard dvor (dv.) двор (дв.)
   Comprehensive tables of these strings can be acquired – see http://www.grcdi.nl/addresses.htm External

Russia - Post office box


   Note: This section last updated 22nd August 2016

This is written Abonentny Yashik, abbreviated to A.R. in Cyrillic script.

Russia - Postal codes


   Note: This section last updated 30th August 2019

Postal codes (почтовый индекс) consist of a block of 6 digits. The code used is that in use since before the break-up of the Soviet Union. The first three digits indicate the region or large town, the last three the post office. Postal codes can begin with a 1,2,3,4 or 6. No codes currently begin with 22, 25-29, 31-33, 37, 47-49, 5 or 7-9.

Codes commencing 29 are in the disputed territory of Crimea.

   Metadata containing postal code formatting rules, exceptions and regular expressions can be acquired External

Russia - Postal code format graphic


Russia - Postal code format

Russia - Postal code specifics

Russia - Postal code regular expression


Russia - Postal code level of coverage


Russia - Postal code map


Russia: Postal code map Source: Wikipedia

Place names in Russia


   Note: This section last updated 11th May 2017

Refer to Exonyms in Russia for full lists of place names in Russia in other languages.

   Alternate place name forms/postal code tables can be acquired at http://www.grcdi.nl/settlements.htm External
   Other language place name data can be acquired at http://www.grcdi.nl/otherlanguageplace.htm External

Russia - Administrative districts


   Note: This section last updated 29th March 2014

The main administrative unit is the oblast External (oblast’, plural - oblastey). There are also 20 autonomous republics External (avtonomnyk respublik, singular - avtonomnaya respublika, shown in the list below with an asterisk), 4 autonomous okrugs External (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug, shown in the list below with a ‡), 7 krays External (krayev, singular – kray, shown in the list below with a ∆), 2 federal cities External (gorod, shown in the list below with a #), and 1 autonomous oblast External (avtonomnaya oblast’, shown in the list below with a ☼). The administrative districts usually have the same name as their administrative capitals. Where this is not the case, the administrative capital is named after the district name between brackets.

Note that when using a place name with an adjectival ending skaya or skiy, the word Oblast’ or Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be added to the place name in this way: Belgorodskaya Oblast.

Administrative district Postal code range
Adygeya External (Maykop) * 385
Altay External (Gorno-Altaysk) * 649
Altayskiy External (Barnaul) ∆ 656-659
Amurskaya External (Blagoveshchensk) 675-676
Arkhangel’skaya External 163-165
Astrakhanskaya External 414-416
Bashkortostan External (Ufa) * 450-453
Belgorodskaya External 308-309
Bryanskaya External 241-243
Buryatia External 670-671
Chechnya External (Groznyy) * 364-366
Chelyabinskaya External 454-457
Chukotskiy External (Anadyr’) ‡ 689
Chuvashiya External (Cheboksary) * 428-429
Dagestan External (Makhachkala) * 367-368
Ingushetiya External (Nazran’) * 386
Irkutskaya External 664-666, 669
Ivanovskaya External 153-155
Kabardino-Balkariya External (Nal’chik) * 360-361
Kaliningradskaya External 236-238
Kalmykiya External (Elista) * 358-359
Kaluzhskaya External 248-249
Kamchatskaya External 683-684, 688
Karachayevo-Cherkesiya External (Cherkessk) * 369
Kareliya External (Petrozavodsk) * 185-186
Kemerovskaya External 650-654
Khabarovskiy External 680-682
Khakasiya External (Abakan) * 655
Khanty-Mansiyskiy External (Khanty-Mansiysk) ‡ 628
Kirovskaya External 610-613
Komi External (Syktyvkar) * 167-169
Kostromskaya External 156-157
Krasnodarskiy External 350-354
Krasnoyarskiy External 660-663, 647-648
Kurganskaya External 640-641
Kurskaya External 305-307
Leningradskaya External 187-188
Lipetskaya External 398-399
Magadanskaya External 685-686
Mariy-El External (Yoshkar-Ola) * 424-425
Mordoviya External (Saransk) * 430-431
Moskovskaya External 140-144
Moskva External # 101-129
Murmanskaya External 183-184
Nenetskiy External (Nar’yan-Mar) ‡ 166
Nizhegorodskaya External 603-607
Novgorodskaya External 173-175
Novosibirskaya External 630-633
Omskaya External 644-646
Orenburgskaya External 460-462
Orlovskaya External (Orel) 302-303
Penzenskaya External 440-442
Perm’ External 614-619
Primorskiy External (Vladivostok) ∆ 690-692
Pskovskaya External 180-182
Rostovskaya External 344-347
Ryazanskaya External 390-391
Sakha External (Yakutsk) * 677-678
Sakhalinskaya External (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) 693-694
Samarskaya External 443-446
Sankt-Peterburg External # 190-199
Saratovskaya External 410-413
Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya External (Vladikavkaz) * 362-363
Smolenskaya External 214-216
Stavropol’skiy External 355-357
Sverdlovskaya External (Yekaterinburg) 620-624
Tambovskaya External 392-393
Tatarstan External (Kazan’) * 420-423
Tomskaya External 634-636
Tul’skaya External 300-301
Tverskaya External 170-172
Tyumenskaya External 625-627
Tyva External (Kyzyl) * 667-668
Udmurtiya External (Izhevsk) * 426-427
Ul’yanovskaya External 432-433
Vladimirskaya External 600-602
Volgogradskaya External 400-404
Vologodskaya External 160-162
Voronezhskaya External 394-397
Yamalo-Nenetskiy External (Salekhard) ‡ 629
Yaroslavskaya External 150-152
Yevreyskaya External 679
Zabaykalskaya External 672-674, 687

Crimea External has the status of a republic within Russia. It is expected to be assign postal codes which are a 2 plus the code assigned as part of Ukraine, giving it codes between 295 and 298.

   This regions/postal code data can be acquired as a data file External

Administrative districts graphic


Telephone numbers in Russia


Russian numbers, when called from abroad, have a length of 10. Mobile numbers have an area code commencing with a 9.

   Tables of telephone number information/formats can be acquired – see http://www.grcdi.nl/telephone.htm External 


  1. ^ citypopulation.de/en/russia/admin/ External 20230116

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All information copyright Graham Rhind 2023. Any information used should be acknowledged and referenced.