Global Sourcebook for International Data Management

                                         by Graham Rhind

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Exonyms in English

Global Sourcebook | Index | Properties

Exonyms in English

Explanation of the terms endonym and exonym here External. Return to exonyms summary page here

More information about these places is to be found in the country chapters. For technical reasons, all alternative place name versions in the lists below have been labelled as "exonyms", even though it may be a local-language alternative form.

Alternate place name forms/postal code tables can be acquired at http://www.grcdi.nl/settlements.htm External

Other language place name data can be acquired at http://www.grcdi.nl/otherlanguageplace.htm External

Exonyms in English External

Endonym/Exonym English
Exonyms in Albania Tiranë → Tirana
Exonyms in Algeria Al-Jazā’ir or الجزائر‎ → Alger
Ouahran or وهران → Oran
Qacentina or قسنطينة → Constantine
Exonyms in Austria Wien → Vienna
Exonyms in Azerbaijan Bakı → Baku
Gɘncɘ → Ganja
Exonyms in Bahrain Al Manāmah or المنامة‎ → Manama
Exonyms in Bangladesh Dhaka or ঢাকা → Dacca
Exonyms in Belgium Antwerpen → Antwerp
Brugge → Bruges
Bruxelles/Brussel → Brüsszel
Gent → Ghent
Ieper → Ypres
Kortrijk → Courtrai
Leuven → Louvain
Mechelen → Malines
Menen → Menin
Oostende → Ostend
Vilvoorde → Filford
Zeebrugge → Zeebruges
Exonyms in Brazil Brasília → Brasilia
São Paulo → Sao Paulo
Exonyms in Bulgaria София or Sofiya → Sofia
Exonyms in Chad N’Djamena or نجامينا‎ → Fort Lamy
Exonyms in China Guangzhou or 广州市 → Canton
Nanjing or 南京 → Nanking
Exonyms in Colombia Bogotá → Bogota
Medellín → Medellin
Exonyms in Cuba La Habana → Havana
Exonyms in Cyprus Lefkosia or Λευκωσία → Nicosia
Lemesos or Λεμεσός → Limmasol
Pafos or Πάφος → Paphos
Exonyms in Czechia / the Czech Republic České Budějovice → Budweis
Český Krumlov → Crumlaw
Plzeň → Pilsen
Praha → Prague
Exonyms in Denmark Helsingør → Elsinore
København → Copenhagen
Exonyms in Egypt Waset → Thebes
اسكندرية or El Iskandarîya → Alexandria
أسوان or Aswân → Aswan
الأقصر‎ or El Uqsur → Luxor
الجيزة or El Gîza → Giza
السويس‎ or El Suweis → Suez
الفيوم‎ or El Fayyūm → Faiyum
القاهرة or El Qâhira → Cairo
القصير‎ or El-Osēr → Qusayr
المنصورة‎ or El-Mansūra → Mansoura
المنيا‎ or Al-Minya → Minya
بورسعيد or Borsaʿīd or Bûr Saîd → Port Said
دسوق‎ or Disūq → Desouk
دمياط or Dumyât → Damietta
كفر الشيخ‎ or Kafr el Šēk → Kafr el-Sheikh
Exonyms in Eritrea ኣስመራ or Asmera → Asmara
Exonyms in Ethiopia Addis Abeba or አዲስ አበባ → Addis Ababa
Exonyms in France Dunkerque → Dunkirk
Exonyms in Germany Aachen → Aix-la-Chappelle
Blindheim → Blenheim
Braunschweig → Brunswick
Frankfurt am Main → Frankfurt
Hameln → Hamelin
Hannover → Hanover
Jülich → Juliers
Kassel → Cassel
Kleve → Cleves
Koblenz → Coblenz
Köln → Cologne
Konstanz → Constance
München → Munich
Nürnberg → Nuremberg
Exonyms in Greece Athínai or Αθήνα → Athens
Iráklion or Ηράκλειο → Candia
Kérkira or Κέρκυρα → Corfu
Khalkís or Χαλκίς → Chalcis
Khaniá or Χανιά → Canea
Kórinthos or Κόρινθος → Corinth
Patrai or Πάτρα → Patrae
Piraiévs or Πειραιεύς → Piræus
Ródos or Ρόδος → Rhodes
Sparti or Σπάρτη → Sparta
Thessaloníki or Θεσσαλονίκη → Salonica
Exonyms in Greenland Kangerlussuaq → Sondrestrom
Pituffik or Uummanaq → Thule Air Base
Exonyms in Guatemala Ciudad de Guatemala → Guatemala City
Exonyms in India Alappuzha or ആലപ്പുഴ → Aleppey
Aluva or ആലുവ → Alwaye
Bengalooru or Bengaluru or ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು → Bangalore
Chennai or சென்னை → Madras
Kannur or कण्णूर or കണ്ണൂർ → Cannanore
Kochi or കൊച്ചി → Cochin
Kolkata or কলকাতা → Calcutta
Kollam or കൊല്ലം or ക്വയ്ലോണ്‍ → Quilon
Kozhikode or കോഴിക്കോട് → Calicut
Mangalooru or ಮಂಗಳೂರು → Mangalore
Mumbai or मुंबई → Bombay
Puna → Poona
Shimla or शिमला or ਸ਼ਿਮਲਾ → Simla
Thiruvanthapuram or തിരുവനന്തപുരം → Trivandrum
Thrissur or തൃശ്ശൂർ → Trichur
Exonyms in Iran Tehran or تهران → Teheran or Tehran
Exonyms in Iraq Al-Başrah or البصرة‎ → Basra
Al-Mawsil or الموصل → Mossul or Mosul
Al-Mawsil or الموصل → Mosul
Exonyms in Israel Akko or עַכּוֹ or عكّا‎‎ → Acre
Nazerat Illit or נָצְרַת עִלִּית or الناصرة العليا‎‎ → Nazareth
Teverya or טְבֶרְיָה or طبرية‎‎ → Tiberias
Yafo or יָפוֹ or يَافَا → Jaffa
Yerushalayim or יְרוּשָׁלַיִם or القُدس‎ → Jerusalem
Exonyms in Italy Bologna → Bologne
Firenze → Florence
Genova → Genoa
Livorno → Leghorn
Mantova → Mantua
Milano → Milan
Napoli → Naples
Padova → Padua
Roma → Rome
Siena → Sienna
Siracusa → Syracuse
Torino → Turin
Venezia → Venice
Exonyms in Jordan الزرقاء or Az-Zarqā → Zarqa
عمّان or Ammān → Amman
Exonyms in Kazakhstan Almatı or Алматы → Almaty
Exonyms in Kuwait Al Kuwayt or مدينة الكويت → Kuwait
Exonyms in Kyrgyzstan Bichkek or Бишкéк → Bishkek
Exonyms in Lebanon Beyrut or بيروت‎ → Beirut
Şaydā or صيدون‎ → Sidon
Şūr or صور → Tyre
Exonyms in Libya Benghāzi or بنغازي‎ → Benghazi
Marsá Susah → Apollonia
Shahhāt or شحات → Cyrene
Tarābulus or طرابلس → Tripoli
Ţubruq or طبرق → Tobruk
Exonyms in Luxembourg Lëtzebuerg → Luxembourg
Exonyms in Malta Birgu → Vittoriosa
Bormla → Cospicua
Għajnsielem → Kemmuna
Rabat → Victoria
Raħal Ġdid → Paola
San Ġiljan → Saint Julian’s
San Ġwann → Saint John
San Lawrenz → Saint Lawrence
San Pawl Il-Baħar → Saint Paul’s Bay
Wied Il-Għajn → Marsascala or Marsaskala
Exonyms in Mexico Ciudad de México → Mexico City
Exonyms in Morocco Ar-Rabāt or الرباط → Rabat
Ed-Dar el-Bida or الدار البيضاء → Casablanca
Exonyms in Myanmar Yangon or ရန်ကုန် → Rangoon
Exonyms in Netherlands ’s-Gravenhage → The Hague
Alphen aan den Rijn → Alphen-on-the-Rhine
Brielle → Brill
Den Helder → The Helder
Dordrecht → Dort or Dordt
Haarlem → Harlem
Hoek van Holland → The Hook of Holland
Leiden → Leyden
Rijswijk → Ryswick
Roosendaal → Rosendale
Sluis → Sluys
Vlissingen → Flushing
Exonyms in North Korea P’yongyang or 평양 → Pyongyang
Exonyms in Northern Cyprus Mağusa or Gazimağusa → Famagusta
Exonyms in Oman Musqaţ or مسقط → Muscat
Exonyms in Poland Gdańsk → Danzig
Kraków → Crakow
Oświęcim → Auschwitz
Szczecin → Stettin
Warszawa → Warsaw
Wrocław → Breslau
Exonyms in Portugal Bragança → Braganza
Lisboa → Lisbon
Porto → Oporto
Exonyms in Qatar الدوحة‎‎ or Ad Dawhah → Doha
Exonyms in Romania Bucureşti → Bucharest
Exonyms in Russia Arhangelsk or Арха́нгельск → Archangel
Moskva or Москва → Moscow
Rostov-na-Donu or Росто́в-на-Дону́ → Rostov on Don
Sankt Petersburg or Санкт-Петербург → Saint Petersburg
Exonyms in Saudi Arabia Al Madinah or المدينة المنورة‎ → Medina
Ar Riyād or الرياض‎ → Riyadh
Az Zahrān or الظهران → Dhahran
Jiddah‎ or جدة‎ → Jeddah
Makkah or مكة → Mecca
Exonyms in Serbia Beograd or Београд → Belgrade
Exonyms in Spain Cádiz → Cadiz
Córdoba → Cordoba
Málaga → Malaga
Pamplona → Pampeluna
Sevilla → Seville
Zaragoza → Saragossa
Exonyms in Sudan Bûr Sûdân or بور سودان → Port Sudan
El Khartûm or الخرطوم → Khartoum
Exonyms in Sweden Göteborg → Gothenburg
Exonyms in Switzerland Basel → Basle
Bern → Berne
Genève → Geneva
Zürich → Zurich
Exonyms in Syria Al Lādhiqiyah or اللَاذِقِيَّة‎‎ → Latakia
Dimashq or دمشق → Damascus
Halab or ﺣﻠﺐ → Aleppo
Hims or حمص → Homs
Exonyms in Taiwan T’ai-pei or 臺北市 → Taipei
Exonyms in Thailand Krung Thep → Bangkok
Exonyms in the Gaza Strip غزة‎ or Ġazzah → Gaza
Exonyms in Turkey Bursa → Prusa
Gelibolu → Gallipoli
İstanbul → Istanbul
İzmir → Smyrna
Kayseri → Caeserea
Tekirdağ → Rodosto
Exonyms in Ukraine Київ or Kiyev → Kiev
Одеса or Odesa → Odessa
Exonyms in Uzbekistan Buxoro or Бухоро → Bukhara
Toškent or Тошкент → Tashkent
Exonyms in Vietnam Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh → Ho Chi Minh City
Exonyms in Yemen Al ’Adan or عدن‎ → Aden
Exonyms on the West Bank أريحا or Arīḥā‎ → Jericho
الخليل or al-Khalīl → Hebron
بيت لحم‎ or Bayt Lahm‎ → Bethlehem


Every effort is made to keep this resource updated. If you find any errors, or have any questions or requests, please don't hesitate to contact the author.

All information copyright Graham Rhind 2019. Any information used should be acknowledged and referenced.