_____ _____ Finland

Global Sourcebook for International Data Management

                                         by Graham Rhind



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Global Sourcebook | Index | Properties


For supplementary information, see links to post office home pages here External, to postal code pages here External and to other personal name and addressing issues pages here External.

Table of Contents

Finland - Country information


Local short name form

Official name



5 603 851 (2023 estimate) [1]



International telephone access code


ISO 3166 country codes

FI, FIN, 246 (NB: Åland Islands now have the ISO 3166 code AX)

Car nationality plate code


Internet country code


GRC Country Code


Finland - Number format

   1 234,45

(where , indicates the decimal separator and a space the thousands separator)

Finland - Date and time formats


   Note: This section last updated 18th April 2021

The 24-hour clock notation is used.


Finland - Languages


Finland has two official languages: Finnish External, spoken by 94% of the population; and Swedish External, spoken by 6%. Some 22 900 of the Swedish speakers inhabit the Åland Islands, where they form 95% of the population. The Swedish speakers are concentrated in two areas, along the southern coast between Helsinki and Hangö, and along the western coast between Pori and Jakobstad.

There are 24 municipalities that are unilingually Swedish, 17 with a Swedish majority and 23 where the minority is Swedish (in all cases, the municipality must contain at least 3000 people or 8 per cent of the population as Swedish speakers to be declared bilingual). The names of the relevant municipalities are listed in the place names section of this chapter.

There are 10 000 speakers of Karelian External in northern Finland close to the Russian border; 4-6 000 speakers of Romany External and 7 000 speakers of three dialects of Saami (Sámi) External in northern Finland, especially around the town of Utsjoki. There are also scattered speakers of Livvi External.

A bilingual Finnish/Swedish street name sign in Helsinki

A bilingual Finnish/Swedish street name sign in Helsinki

Finland - Personal names


   Note: This section last updated 20th January 2016

People are legally obliged to have at least one given name and one surname, and may have no more than three given names. Names may generally be chosen freely but may not be used predominantly for naming the other sex, may not be foreign to Finnish naming traditions, may not be a surname (except for a patronymic as the last given name) or (if only one name is to be given) already be in use by a sibling. These rules may be waived in some exceptional cases.

Since 1986, married Finns may take either the family name of the husband or wife, or retain their pre-marriage family names. Children take the shared family name, or one of the names if each parent has retained their pre-marriage names. All siblings share the same family name. Some women also use double-barrelled (hyphenated) family names upon marriage, e.g. Aarikka-Stenroos, the first being the pre-marriage family name, the second being the husband’s family name.

   Tables of names can be acquired: given names External, surnames/family names External, family name prefixes External, forms of address External, job titles External

Finland - Company legal forms


   Note: This section last updated 10th July 2013

The following company type indications will be identified in address databases:

   AB (Aktiebolag – stock company)
   Anl. (Andelslag)
   Apb (Publikt Aktiebolag – public limited company)
   Ay (Avoin yhtiö – partnership)
   Ideell förening(non-profit organisation)
   EEIG (Europeisk Ekonomisk Intressegruppering - European Economic Interest Grouping)
   Firma enskild näringsidkare - sole proprietorship
   Kb (Kommanditbolag – limited partnership)
   Kommunal affärsverk - municipal enterprise
   Ky (Kommandiittiyhtiö - limited partnership - usually followed by the name of the owner)
   Kunnallinen liikelaitos - municipal enterprise
   OK (osuuskunta) - co-operative
   Öppet bolag (partnership)
   OY (Osakeyhtiö - limited liability company)
   OYJ (Julkinen Osakeyhtiö – public limited company)
   RY (rekisteröity yhdistys) - voluntary association
   Säätiö - foundation
   Statens affärsverk - commercial government agency
   Stiftelse - Foundation
   Toiminimi, Yksityinen elinkeinonharjoittaja (T:mi, Tmi) - Sole proprietorship
   Valtion liikelaitos - commercial government agency
   Comprehensive tables of these strings can be acquired – see http://www.grcdi.nl/addresses.htm External

Finland - Addresses


   Note: This section last updated 2nd July 2020

Finnish addresses are written in this format:

   Recipient name
   Thoroughfare[ ]number
   [ ]
   postal code[  ]TOWN NAME {[ ]sorting code}

For example:


The Finnish Post Office prefer addresses to follow a fixed six-line pattern with blank lines where necessary so that each component of an address will always fall on the same line:

   Company Name
   Street Address
   blank line
   postal code[  ]SETTLEMENT NAME
   Country name

There should be two spaces between the postal code and the settlement name.

More recently addresses are most often found without any empty lines and without any sorting codes used:


In multilingual areas street addresses can be given in either language.

Jais the Finnish word for ‘and’.

In Finnish, articles do not exist as separate words but are added as endings to the words to which they refer. There is no separate word for Saint in Finnish.

The Finnish postal authorities prefer that ’FI-’ is placed before the postal codes, but the rules of the country from which the mail is sent must define if you do this - please refer to Formatting an international address.

Please refer to the chapter on Sweden for information on Swedish.

   A table containing information about the relevant position of elements within address blocks can be acquired External

(Sub-) Building & Thoroughfare types


   Note: This section last updated 19th January 2019

Please refer to the chapter on Sweden for thoroughfare lists in Swedish.

Below is a list of the most commonly occurring thoroughfare types in Finland, with the abbreviated form(s) which you are most likely to find in address databases. Finnish, one of Europe’s most complex languages, has 16 cases, and appropriate declensions are added at the ends of words, including words indicating thoroughfare types.

Finnish/Swedish Abbreviation Translation
Asunto as. Residence, flat, apartment
Aukio Auk. Square
Bostad bst Residence, flat, apartment
Bulevardi, Bulevard   Avenue
Esplanadi   Esplanade
Gatan, Gate, Gata Gt., G. Street
Huvila   Cottage
Kaari Kri Curve
Katu   Street
Kerostallo   Apartment
Koti   House
Kuja   Alley (cul-de-sac)
Palveluta   Block of service flats
Penger Pgr Embankment
Polku P. Path
Porras   Staircase
Portti   Gate
Rinne   Street
Talo   Building
Tie   Street
Tienhaara Th. Crossroads, Junction
Tori Tr. Marketplace, Square
Vägen, Väg V. Road
Väylä Vlä. Route, (Motor)way

There is no rule governing hyphenation in street addresses.

   Comprehensive tables of these strings can be acquired – see http://www.grcdi.nl/addresses.htm External

Finland - Post office box


This is written as Postilokero (PL) in Finnish, Box in Swedish.

Finland - Postal codes


   Note: This section last updated 2nd July 2020

Postal codes (Postinumero) are composed of a block of 5 digits. These are written on the same line, and before, the town name. The first 2 digits of the postal code indicate the area of Finland covered (the sorting office). The next two digits indicate the area within this region (on the basis of municipality/village or suburb). The last digit is usually a 0 (ordinary postal code) or a 1 (post office box). Note that large-user postal codes may also end with a 0 or 1.

In larger towns a sorting code following the town name may be found. For example:

   02361 ESPOO 36

The Finnish Post Office prefers that this sorting code, which is included in the postal code, not be used.

Some isolated areas do not have door-to-door postal deliveries, and these areas are served, especially for newspaper deliveries, by buses. These delivery lines have postal codes ending in 899.

The Finnish postal authorities prefer that ’FI-’ is placed before the postal codes, but the rules of the country from which the mail is sent must define if you do this - please refer to Formatting an international address.

In many towns in Finland, different streets, and different house numbers within those streets, belong to different postal code areas.

   Metadata containing postal code formatting rules, exceptions and regular expressions can be acquired External

Finland - Postal code format graphic


Finland - Postal code format

Finland - Postal code specifics


Finland - Postal code regular expression


Finland - Postal code level of coverage


Finland - Postal code map



Place names in Finland


   Note: This section last updated 5th May 2016

As Finland is a bilingual country, many settlements have both a Finnish and a Swedish name. The following list gives the alternative names for these settlements:

Unilingually Swedish-speaking municipalities with Finnish exonyms

Postal code SwedishFinnish More information about this place
  Houtskär → Houtskari Houtskär - Wikipedia External
  Larsm → Luoto Larsmo - Wikipedia External
  Malax → Maalahti Malax - Wikipedia External
  Mariehamn → Maarianhamina Mariehamn - Wikipedia External
  Maxmo → Maksamaa Maxmo - Wikipedia External
  Närpes → Närpiö Närpes - Wikipedia External

Other unilingually Swedish-speaking municipalities are:

Postal code Swedish More information about this place
  Brändö Brändö - Wikipedia External
  Eckerö Eckerö - Wikipedia External
  Finström Finström - Wikipedia External
  Föglö Föglö - Wikipedia External
  Geta Geta Åland - Wikipedia External
  Hammarland Hammarland - Wikipedia External
  Iniö Iniö - Wikipedia External
  Jomala Jomala - Wikipedia External
  Kökar Kökar - Wikipedia External
  Korsnäs Korsnäs - Wikipedia External
  Kumlinge Kumlinge - Wikipedia External
  Lemland Lemland - Wikipedia External
  Lumparland Lumparland - Wikipedia External
  Saltvik Saltvik - Wikipedia External
  Sottunga Sottunga - Wikipedia External
  Sund Sund Åland - Wikipedia External
  Vårdö Vårdö - Wikipedia External
  Västanfjärd Västanfjärd - Wikipedia External

Municipalities with a Swedish-speaking majority and Finnish exonyms

Postal code SwedishFinnish More information about this place
  Ekenäs → Tammisaari Ekenäs Finland - Wikipedia External
  Esse → Ähtävä Esse - Wikipedia External
  Ingå → Inkoo Ingå - Wikipedia External
  Jakobstad → Pietersaari Jakobstad - Wikipedia External
  Karis → Karjaa Karis - Wikipedia External
  Kimito → Kemiö Kimito - Wikipedia External
  Korpo → Korpoo Korpo - Wikipedia External
  Korsholm → Mustasaari Korsholm - Wikipedia External
  Kristinestad → Kristiinankaupunki Kristinestad - Wikipedia External
  Kronoby → Kruunupyy Kronoby - Wikipedia External
  Nagu → Nauvo Nagu - Wikipedia External
  Nykarleby → Uusikaarlepyy Nykarleby - Wikipedia External
66800 Oravais → Oravainen Oravais - Wikipedia External
  Pargas → Parainen Pargas - Wikipedia External
  Pemå → Pemaja  
  Sibbo → Sipoo Sipoo - Wikipedia External
  Tenala → Tenhola Tenala - Wikipedia External
  Vörå → Vöyri Vörå - Wikipedia External

Other municipalities with a Swedish-speaking majority are:

Postal code Swedish More information about this place
  Dragsfjärd Dragsfjärd - Wikipedia External
  Liljendal Liljendal - Wikipedia External

Municipalities with a Swedish-speaking minority and a Swedish exonym

Postal code FinnishSwedish More information about this place
  Espoo → Esbo Espoo - Wikipedia External
  Hanko → Hangö Hanko - Wikipedia External
  Helsinki → Helsingfors Helsinki - Wikipedia External
  Kaskinen → Kaskö Kaskinen - Wikipedia External
  Kauniainen → Grankulla Kauniainen - Wikipedia External
  Kirkkonummi → Kyrkslätt Kirkkonummi - Wikipedia External
  Kokkola → Karleby Kokkola - Wikipedia External
  Lapinjärvi → Lappträsk Lapinjärvi (municipality) - Wikipedia External
  Lohja → Lojo Lohja - Wikipedia External
07900 Loviisa → Lovisa Loviisa - Wikipedia External
  Myrskylä → Mörskom Myrskylä - Wikipedia External
  Pyhtää → Pyttis Pyhtää - Wikipedia External
  Pohja → Pojo Pohja - Wikipedia External
  Porvoo → Borgå Porvoo - Wikipedia External
  Ruotsinpyhtää → Strömfors Ruotsinpyhtää - Wikipedia External
  Särkisalo → Finby Särkisalo - Wikipedia External
  Siuntio → Sjundeå Siuntio - Wikipedia External
20000-20960 Turku → Åbo Turku - Wikipedia External
  Vaasa → Vasa Vaasa - Wikipedia External
  Vantaa → Vanda Vantaa - Wikipedia External

Other municipalities with a Swedish-speaking minority are:

Postal code Finnish More information about this place

Other settlements

Postal code FinnishSwedish More information about this place
  Ähtäri → Etseri Ähtäri - Wikipedia External
  Ahvenkoski → Abborfors  
  Anttila → Andersböle  
  Artjärvi → Artsjö Artjärvi - Wikipedia External
  Askainen → Villnäs Askainen - Wikipedia External
  Degerby UL → Nylands Degerby  
  Emäsalo → Emsalö Emäsalo - Wikipedia External
  Enontekiö → Enontekis Enontekiö - Wikipedia External
  Eurajoki → Euraåminne Eurajoki - Wikipedia External
  Fiskari → Fiskars Fiskars Finland - Wikipedia External
  Hailuoto → Karlö Hailuoto - Wikipedia External
  Hamari → Hammars  
  Hämeenkyrö → Tavastkyro Hämeenkyrö - Wikipedia External
  Hämeenlinna → Tavastehus Hämeenlinna - Wikipedia External
  Hamina → Fredrikshamn Hamina - Wikipedia External
  Hangonkylä → Hangöby  
  Hanko Pohjoinen → Hangö Norra  
  Härkäpää → Härpe  
  Heikinkylä → Hindersby  
  Heinlahti → Heinlax  
  Hiittinen → Hitis Hiittinen - Wikipedia External
  Hinthaara → Hindhår  
  Hyvinkää → Hyvinge Hyvinkää - Wikipedia External
  Iisalmi → Idensalmi Iisalmi - Wikipedia External
  Ikaalinen → Ikalis Ikaalinen - Wikipedia External
  Ilola → Illby  
  Ilomantsi → Ilomants Ilomantsi - Wikipedia External
  Inari → Enare Inari (village) - Wikipedia External
  Ingermaninkylä → Ingermansby  
  Isojoki → Storå Isojoki - Wikipedia External
  Isokyrö → Storkyro Isokyrö - Wikipedia External
  Jakari → Jackarby  
  Järvenpää → Träskända Järvenpää - Wikipedia External
  Jepua → Jeppo Jeppo (village) - Wikipedia External
  Jokioinen → Jockis Jokioinen - Wikipedia External
  Joroinen → Jorois Joroinen - Wikipedia External
  Kaarenkylä → Karsby  
  Kaarina → S:t Karins Kaarina - Wikipedia External
  Kajaani → Kajana Kajaani - Wikipedia External
  Kalkkiranta → Kalkstrand  
  Kälviä → Kelviå Kälviä - Wikipedia External
  Kankkila → Kanböle  
  Karijoki → Bötom Karijoki - Wikipedia External
  Karjalohja → Karislojo Karjalohja - Wikipedia External
  Karkkila → Högfors Karkkila - Wikipedia External
  Kaunislahti → Grundsjö  
  Kaustinen → Kaustby Kaustinen - Wikipedia External
  Kerava → Kervo Kerava - Wikipedia External
  Kerkko → Kerko  
  Kiila → Kila  
  Kimito → Kemiö Kimito - Wikipedia External
  Kirkniemi → Gerknäs  
  Koivulahti → Kvevlax Kvevlax - Wikipedia External
  Kokemäki → Kumo Kokemäki - Wikipedia External
  Kolppi → Kållby  
  Koskenkylän Saha → Forsby Såg  
  Köyliö → Kjulo Köyliö - Wikipedia External
  Kujala → Gränden  
  Kulloo → Kullo  
  Kulloonkylä → Kulloby  
  Kuninkaankylä → Kungsböle  
  Kustavi → Gustavs Kustavi - Wikipedia External
  Lahti → Lahtis Lahti - Wikipedia External
  Laihia → Laihela Laihia - Wikipedia External
  Lapinkylä → Lappböle  
  Lappeenranta → Villmanstrand Lappeenranta - Wikipedia External
  Lappohja → Lappvik  
  Lapinjärvi → Lappträsk  
  Lapua → Lappo Lapua - Wikipedia External
  Lapväärtti → Lappfjärd  
  Lielahti → Lielax Lielahti - Wikipedia External
  Lieto → Lundo Lieto - Wikipedia External
  Liminka → Limingo Liminka - Wikipedia External
  Lohtaja → Lochteå Lohtaja - Wikipedia External
  Luoma → Bobäck Luoma railway station - Wikipedia External
  Martinkylä → Mårtensby  
  Masala → Masaby Masala Kirkkonummi - Wikipedia External
  Meltolan Sairaala → Mjölbolsta Sjukhus  
  Menkarvia → Sastmola  
  Metsälä → Ömossa  
  Mikkeli → S:t Michel Mikkeli - Wikipedia External
  Mustio → Svartå  
  Naantali → Nådendal Naantali - Wikipedia External
  Nedervetil → Alaveteli Nedervetil - Wikipedia External
  Nikkilan Sairaala → Nickby Sjukhus  
  Noormarkku → Norrmark Noormarkku - Wikipedia External
  Nousiainen → Nousis Nousiainen - Wikipedia External
  Oitmäki → Oitbacka  
  Oravaisten Tehdas → Oravais Fabrik  
  Oulu → Uleåborg Oulu - Wikipedia External
  Paattinen → Patis Paattinen - Wikipedia External
  Paimio → Pemar Paimio - Wikipedia External
  Paippinen → Paipis  
  Päivölä → Solberg  
  Pännäinen → Bennäs Bennäs - Wikipedia External
  Pämäinen → Pärnäs  
  Pellinki → Pellinge Pellinki - Wikipedia External
  Pernajan Vanhakylä → Gammelby  
  Perniö → Bjärnå Perniö - Wikipedia External
  Piikiö → Pikis  
  Pikkala → Pickala  
  Pinjainen → Billnäs  
  Pirkkala → Birkala Pirkkala - Wikipedia External
  Pohjankuru → Skuru  
  Pomarkku → Påmark Pomarkku - Wikipedia External
  Pori → Björneborg Pori - Wikipedia External
  Porlammi → Porlom  
  Pornainen → Borgnäs Pornainen - Wikipedia External
  Pukaro → Pockar  
  Purola → Svartbäck  
  Raahe → Brahestad Raahe - Wikipedia External
  Raippaluoto → Replot Replot - Wikipedia External
  Raisio → Reso Raisio - Wikipedia External
  Rauma → Raumo Rauma Finland - Wikipedia External
  Ruotsinkylä → Svenskby  
  Rymättylä → Rimito Rymättylä - Wikipedia External
  Sannainen → Sannäs  
21570 Sauvo → Sagu  
  Savonlinna → Nyslott Savonlinna - Wikipedia External
  Siipyy → Sideby  
  Siltakylä → Broby  
  Sulva → Solf  
  Suurpellinki → Storpellinge  
  Tähtelä → Täkter  
  Taivassalo → Tövsala Taivassalo - Wikipedia External
  Talma → Tallmo  
  Tampere → Tammerfors Tampere - Wikipedia External
  Teerijärvi → Terjärv  
  Tesjoki → Tessjö  
  Teuva → Östermark Teuva - Wikipedia External
  Tiukka → Tjöck  
  Tolkkinen → Tolkis  
  Tornio → Torneå Tornio - Wikipedia External
04301 Tuusula → Tusby Tuusula - Wikipedia External
  Ulvila → Ulvsby Ulvila - Wikipedia External
  Upinniemi → Obbnäs Upinniemi - Wikipedia External
  Uusikaupunki → Nystad Uusikaupunki - Wikipedia External
  Vähäkyrö → Lillkyro Vähäkyrö - Wikipedia External
  Valko → Valkom  
  Vehralahti → Veckelax  
  Veikkaala → Veikars  
  Veteli → Vetil Veteli - Wikipedia External
  Vihti → Vichtis Vihti - Wikipedia External
  Virkkala → Virkby  
  Virrat → Virdois Virrat - Wikipedia External
  Voolahti → Vålax  
  Ylitornio → Överthomeå Ylitornio - Wikipedia External

The predominant language of the Aland Islands (Ahvenanmaan lääni) is Swedish.

Finns often use abbreviations to indicate certain towns, such as HKI for Helsinki and MH for Mariehamn.

The following table gives Sámi equivalents of Finnish place names:

Postal code FinnishSámi More information about this place
  Ailikas → Áilegas  
  Angeli → Áŋŋel Angeli Finland - Wikipedia External
  Enontekiö → Eanodat Enontekiö - Wikipedia External
  Helsinki → Helsset Helsinki - Wikipedia External
99400 Hetta → Heahttá Hetta - Wikipedia External
  Inari → Anár or Aanaar Inari (village) - Wikipedia External
  Inarijoki → Anárjohka  
  Ivalo → Avvil Ivalo - Wikipedia External
  Ivalojoki → Avviljohka  
  Kaamanen → Gápmas Kaamanen - Wikipedia External
99470 Kaaresuvanto → Gárasavvon Karesuvanto - Wikipedia External
  Karigasniemi → Gáregasnjárga Karigasniemi - Wikipedia External
  Kätkäsuvanto → Geatkesavvon  
94100 Kemi → Giepma Kemi - Wikipedia External
  Kemijärvi → Giemajávri Kemijärvi - Wikipedia External
  Kilpisjärvi → Gilbbesjávri Kilpisjärvi - Wikipedia External
  Kittilä → Gihttel Kittilä - Wikipedia External
  Kultima → Gulddan  
  Kuttainen → Guhttás Kuttainen - Wikipedia External
  Kuusamo → Guossán Kuusamo - Wikipedia External
  Lemmenjoki → Leammi  
  Lisma → Čálku  
  Lutto → Lohttu or Lotto  
  Menesjärvi → Menešjávri  
  Näätämö → Njávdán  
  Näkkälä → Neakkel  
  Nunnanen → Njunnás  
  Nuorgam → Njuorggán Nuorgam - Wikipedia External
  Nuvvus → Nuvvos  
  Outakoski → Vuovdaguoika  
  Peltovuoma → Bealdovuopmi  
  Rajajooseppi → Rájijovsset  
  Rovaniemi → Roavvenjárga Rovaniemi - Wikipedia External
  Rovisuvanto → Roavvesavvon  
  Saariselkä → Suoločielgi Saariselkä - Wikipedia External
  Savukoski → Suovvaguoika Savukoski - Wikipedia External
  Sevettijärvi → Čeavetjávri Sevettijärvi - Wikipedia External
  Sodankylä → Soadegilli Sodankylä - Wikipedia External
  Suonttajärvi → Suovdit  
  Teno → Deatnu  
  Tornio → Duortnus Tornio - Wikipedia External
  Utsjoki → Ohcejohka Utsjoki - Wikipedia External
  Vaskojoki → Fášku  
  Vuotso → Vuohčču Sodankylä - Wikipedia External

Refer to Exonyms in Finland for full lists of place names in Finland in other languages.

   Alternate place name forms/postal code tables can be acquired at http:www.grcdi.nl/settlements.htm External

Finland - Administrative districts


   Note: This section last updated 4th October 2011

Finland’s 5 provinces (Lääni External) were abolished on 1st January 2010. The 19 regions External (Finnish:maakunta, Swedish: lanskap) into which these provinces were split have become the first order administrative districts. They are not used in addresses. Aland Islands is an autonomous region. In the list below the Swedish name is shown in brackets:

Åland (Ahvenanmaa) (Wikipedia: Åland Islands External )
Etelä-Karjala (Södra Karelen) External
Etelä-Pohjanmaa (Södra Österbotten) External
Etelä-Savo (Södra Savolax) External
Kainuu (Kajanaland) External
Kanta-Häme (Egentliga Tavastland) External
Keski-Pohjanmaa (Mellersta Österbotten) External
Keski-Suomi (Mellersta Finland) External
Kymenlaakso (Kymmenedalen) External
Lappi (Lappland) External
Päijät-Häme (Päijänne Tavastland) External
Pirkanmaa (Birkaland) External
Ostrobothnia Pohjanmaa (Ősterbotten) External
Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Norra Österbotten) External
Pohjois-Savo (Norra Savolax) External
Pohjois-Karjala (Norra Karelen) External
Satakunta (Satakunda) External
Uusimaa (Nyland) External
Varsinais-Suomi (Egentliga Finland) External

Administrative districts graphic


Telephone numbers in Finland


All telephone numbers in Finland have ten digits, including the area code. Mobile area codes are 40-42, 4320-4321, 436, 438, 44, 450-453, 4541-4545, 4552, 4554-4556, 4558-4559, 456, 4570, 4573-4579, 46, 4944 and 50.

   Tables of telephone number information/formats can be acquired – see http://www.grcdi.nl/telephone.htm External 


  1. ^ citypopulation.de/en/finland/admin/ External 20240507

Every effort is made to keep this resource updated. If you find any errors, or have any questions or requests, please don't hesitate to contact the author.

All information copyright Graham Rhind 2024. Any information used should be acknowledged and referenced.